In a highly anticipated decision, the Illinois Supreme Court in Tims v. Blackhorse Carriers, Inc., 2023 IL 127801 (Feb. 2, 2023), recently resolved longstanding uncertainty about the statute of limitations under the Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act (“BIPA”). The Court held all claims arising under BIPA are governed by the five-year “catch-all” statute of limitations period provided by section 13-205 of the Illinois Code of Civil Procedure. See 735 ILCS 5/13-205. In so holding, the Court adopted the most expansive of the two limitations periods at issue. And it rejected Defendant’s—and the broader defense bar’s—contention that Illinois’ one-year limitations period, as applied to certain privacy/defamation actions, should extend to all BIPA actions.
Notably, the Supreme Court reversed, in part, the First District Illinois Appellate Court’s decision that incongruently applied a one-year limitations period to claims arising under Sections 15(c), and 15(d)—but a five-year limitations period for BIPA actions accruing under Sections 15(a), 15(b), and 15(e). Under the Appellate Court’s reasoning, Sections 15(c) and 15(d) included elements of publication analogous to certain common law privacy torts, and, for that reason, required application of Illinois’ one-year statute of limitations for “actions for slander, libel or for publication of matter violating the right of privacy” 735 ILCS 5/13-201. At the same time, the Appellate Court applied the “catch all” five-year statute of limitations period to claims under Sections 15(a), 15(b), and 15(e), reasoning no publication element was involved. 735 ILCS 5/13-205.